Join date: Apr 25, 2022

Footnotes and References in the Dissertation. What Are the Differences?

Any serious research should be based on already available scientific data. However, the materials must be used correctly so that there is no suspicion of plagiarism. For this, footnotes and references in the dissertation are needed.

Differences between footnote and link

What is a footnote? This is a note to the written material. It could be:

  • a comment necessary for a more accurate understanding of the information;

  • literal translation of a term;

  • bibliographic reference.

Reference in the dissertation is a narrower concept. It is used to indicate the source used by the author when writing the work. In this case, the following data must be indicated: full name of the author (s), title, imprint, number of pages, etc. If the author of the dissertation does not refer in work to other people's scientific works on the topic of research, accusations of plagiarism cannot be avoided. However, these are not the only differences between footnotes and references.

Rules for the design of footnotes in the dissertation

Requirements regarding the design of footnotes in scientific papers are regulated by your university and are set out in the guidelines of each university. According to the prescribed rules, they must be numbered first on each new page, indicated with the * sign (if there are no more than 1-2 notes on the page) or Arabic numerals. The “deciphering” of the footnote is given at the bottom of the page, under the drawn line. That is why the footnote is only subscript.

In addition, a number of other rules should be taken into account.

  1. When indicating the full name of the author of the scientific work used in the dissertation, it is allowed to highlight this block of information in italics.

  2. Footnotes use the same font as the dissertation. To highlight them in the general flow, you can reduce the font size by 1 value.

  3. Quotation marks should not be used in the title of the cited work.

  4. The output data of the sources is written.

  5. When quoting again, the author's full name, page numbers are indicated, or a link to the same source is given on the page marked "Ibid".

  6. After that, the author's own thoughts and comments can be placed, which are separated by a dash.

  7. Recommended font - Times New Roman, size - 10 pt.

  8. The footnote text is justified in width, the paragraph indent is 0.5 cm, the spacing is single.

All requirements are advisory in nature, since each university may have its own rules that are binding.

More resources: What Is the Difference Between PhD and Doctoral Dissertations? Structure and Content of a Doctoral Dissertation Features of Preparing a Dissertation for the Degree of Doctor of Science Who Appoints Dissertation Defense Opponents? The Right Choice of Official Dissertation Opponents